The effect of employment on attendance: A response to Identifying and understanding the drivers of student engagement


Chris Hanretty


January 13, 2023


I challenge Strong’s findings that student employment is not related to attendance. I argue that the original analysis is guilty of controlling for a post-treatment variable. As a result, the coefficients in the regression model do not show how employment causes changes in attendance. I show that employment likely has a negative effect on attendance even given severe confounding. Academics should, if asked, tell students that their attendance will likely suffer the more paid work they do.


The version of record is open access. You can access it here.

Replication data

Replication data can be found at the Harvard Dataverse


Hanretty, Chris. 2023. “The Effect of Employment on Attendance: A Response to ’Identifying and Understanding the Drivers of Student Engagement’.” Politics.